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AR 2560

8th Edition: Citations

General template for all citations

Author. Title. Title of container, Other contributors (translators or editors), Version (edition), Number (vol. and/or no.), Publisher, Publication Date, Location (pages, paragraphs URL or DOI).Title of 2nd container (if applicable), Other contributors, Version, Number, Publication date, Location, Date of access (if applicable).  

Major changes in 8th Edition:

  • Generalized, universal template for all types of sources
  • Place of publication is no longer required. 
  • DOIs are now preferred to URLs. 
  • The MLA now recommends the use of URLs with a caveat to follow instructors’ guidelines on this issue.
  • In-text citations remain the same except for some minor additions and changes. 
  • Works Cited entries will end with a period after the DOI or URL. Abbreviations can now be used in Works Cited list entries.

For example, use U for University and P for Press. The “Print or “Web” designator at the end of a citation is no longer required.

Formatting the Works Cited page requires a 'hanging indent'. Check out the Works Cited tab on Formatting my Paper for more information.
Article Template Author's last name, first name. “Title of Article.” Journal Title, Volume, Issue, Day Month Year, pages. doi or permalink/url

***Note: Use a stable URL/permalink for articles if possible when DOIs are unavailable.

Print Article

Tolson, Nancy. “Making Books Available: The Role of Early Libraries, Librarians, and Booksellers in the Promotion of  African American Children’s Literature.” African American Review, vol. 32, no. 1, 1998, pp. 9-16. 

Newspaper Article

Jeromack, Paul. “This Once, a David of the Art World Does Goliath a Favor.” New York Times, late edition, 13 July 2002, p. B7.

***Note: B7 is the page number for the newspaper article

Online Journal Article in a Database

  • Example 1: no DOI available 

Goldman, Anne, “Questions of Transport: Reading Primo Levi Reading Dante.” The Georgia Review, vol. 64, no. 1, 2010, pp.69-88. JSTOR,

  • Example 2: DOI available

Chan, Evans. “Postmodernism and Hong Kong Cinema.” Postmodern Culture, vol. 10, no. 3, May 2000. Project Muse, doi:10.1353/pmc.2000.0021

Unknown Author or Editor 

"Where Angels no Longer Fear to Tread." Economist 22 Mar. 2008: 89-92.

The in-text citation for this is: ("Where Angels" 90) - in text, maintain the quotation marks around the article title. For longer titles, use a shortened version for the in-text reference.

For more information see (MLA 32, 48).


Last name, first name. "Title of Article." Title of Periodical, Day Month Year, page range. 

Example: McEvoy, Dermot. “Little Books, Big Success.” Publishers Weekly, 30 Oct. 2006, pp. 26-28. 


​Cite the same as magazine article; however, note the different or absence of page numbers in a newspaper(e.g. L11), If there is more than one edition available, identify the edition. 

Example:  Jeromack, Paul. “This Once, a David of the Art World Does Goliath a Favor.” New York Times, late edition, 13 July 2002, p. B7.

*B7 is the page number for the newspaper article

For more information see (MLA 39)
Book (Template): Author last name, first name. Title of Book. Publisher, year. 


Single Author

Rowling, J. K. Harry Potter and the Goblet of Fire. Levine-Scholastic, 2000.     

Two Authors  

Dorris, Michael, and Louise Erdrich. The Crown of Columbus. HarperCollins Publishers, 1999.  

Three or More Authors

Booth, Wayne, et al. The Craft of Research. 2nd ed. University of Chicago Press, 2003.

No Author

American Heritage Guide to Contemporary Usage and Style. Houghton, 2005.

Chapter in an Edited Book

Wilson, Robert F., Jr. “William Shakespeare’s Theater.” The Greenwood Companion to Shakespeare: A Comprehensive Guide for Students, edited by Joseph Rosenblum, Greenwood, 2005, pp. 47-64.

Electronic books (e-books)

Rowley, Hazel. Franklin and Eleanor: An Extraordinary Marriage. Kindle ed., Farrar, 2010.

*** Note that page numbers for e-books can change between different formats so avoid using device-specific numbering systems. Unless stable page numbers are available, use a chapter or section number.

See section 3.3.3 in the MLA Handbook 8th Edition for more information. 

Template for General Reference to Film

Last name, First name, director.Title of film. Other contributors (if applicable), Distributor, Date of Release.

Example: Gray, Gary, director. The Fate of the Furious. Produced by Neal Moritz, Vin Diesel, Michael Fottrell, and Chris Morgan, Universal Pictures, 2017.

T.V. Episode (Template) 

"Title of Episode".Title of Series, created by Last name, First name and First name Last name, performances by First name Last name, First name Last name, season #, episode #, Distributor, Date of Release. 

T.V. Episode

“Hush.” Buffy the Vampire Slayer, created by Joss Whedon, performance by Sarah Michelle Gellar, season 4, episode 10, Mutant Enemy, 1999.

Entire TV Series 

Gatiss, Mark and Steven Moffat, creators. Sherlock. Warner Bros. Entertainment Company, 2010.

Online Video (YouTube)

“Buffy the Vampire Slayer: Unaired Pilot 1996.” YouTube, uploaded by Brian Stowe, 28 Jan. 2012, 


"A Study in Pink." Sherlock: A New Sleuth For the 21st Century, created by Mark Gatiss and Steven Moffat, performances by Benedict Cumberbatch and Martin Freeman, season 1 episode 1, Warner Bros. Entertainment Company, 2010, disc 1.

Netflix, Hulu or Google Play

"Out of Darkness, Into the Fire." Supernatural, season 11, episode 1, 2015. Netflix, Accessed 24 May 2017

Inside Out. Directed by Pete Docter, performances by Amy Poehler, Phyllis Smith, Richard Kind, Bill Hader, and Lewis Black, 2015, Walt Disney Pictures/Pixar Animation Studios, Netflix, 

*** Please note the use of Date of Access. Online works can be changed or removed and  including a date of access can be useful to identify which version you have watched. It is especially crucial when the date of publication/production is unknown.

For more information see (MLA 44)
Website Template: Author. “Title of Webpage, or Article.” Title of Web Site, Publisher (if applicable), Publication Date, Location (URL). Date of Access.

Web page on a Website:

Hollmichel, Stefanie. “The Reading Brain: Differences between Digital and Print.” So Many Books, 25 Apr. 2013,

Tab on a Website: 

Quade, Alex. “Elite Team Rescues Troops Behind Enemy Lines.”, 19 Mar. 2007, 5:20 p.m., 

For more information see (MLA 48)

Entire Albums

Beyoncé. Lemonade. Parkwood Entertainment, 2016.

Individual Songs Obtained Online

Beyoncé. "Sorry." Lemonade. Parkwood Entertainment, 2016.   


Astley, Rick. Concert. 6 Oct. 2016, Town Hall, New York City.

Live Performance of a Play

Heartbreak House. By George Bernard Shaw, directed by Robin Lefevre, performances by Philip Bosco and Swoosie Kurtz, Roundabout Theatre Company, 1 Oct. 2016, American Airlines Theatre, New York.

CD/Sound Recording

Lennon, John. "Power To The People." Lennon Legend: The Very Best of John Lennon, EMI Group Inc., 1997.


Copeland, Stewart. "The Rhythmalist." 7 May 2016. MP3 file. 

The J. Paul Getty Museum. "Elements of Art". Understanding Formal Analysis. J. Paul Getty Trust, 2011,

MLA uses parenthetical in-text citations in the format (Author Page). Do not include any punctuation between the author's last name and the page number. There are two ways of citing a source in-text:

  • Method 1: Add brackets containing the author's last name and the page number at the end of a quotation or a paraphrased sentence. Note: the period should be at the end of the citation in brackets, not at the end of the quote itself.

Example: "Quote" (Freud 9).

  • Method 2: Introduce the quotation or paraphrased sentence with author's last name (you can include the author's first name as well, mainly if it's the first time he/she is mentioned in your essay) and give only the page number in brackets, followed by a period.

Examples: Freud says, "quote" (9).

or: Sigmund Freud says, "quote" (9).

Each borrowed idea or sentence MUST be cited. Do not wait until the end of the paragraph to put in your citations.

If there are two authors, use both authors' last names for every in-text reference. Use the word "and" to join the names.


Method 1: "quotation" (Broer and Holland 13) 

Method 2: Broer and Holland state, "quotation" (25). 

You can use both Method 1 and Method 2 based on what works best in your sentence!

If there are three or more authors, use first author's last name + et al. Do not use any punctuation after the last name (no commas).  


"Quote" (Plag et al. 44).

or, As Plag et al. explain, "quote" (64). 

Citing Different Works by the Same Author

If you reference two different works by the same author, your in-text citations will be unclear if done using either of the two methods mentioned above, as the author's name alone is not enough to distinguish which citations were pulled from which works. In this case, include a short form of the source's title after author's last name and before the page number.

For example: If our work is called "Redefining Reading: The Impact of Digital Communication Media," we can reference the work in text in the following manner: "The other half [of literacy] is writing" (Baron, "Redefining" 194). 

Citing Works by Authors with the Same Last Name

If your essay references two works by different authors who have the same last name, add first initial (or full name) to in-text citations to avoid ambiguity.

Example: Work 1 = (S.A. Baron 194); Work 2 = (Naomi Baron 14)

For more information see (MLA 116): 3.In-text Citations

MLA requires the use of a “block” format for quotations longer than 4 lines. For block format, the quotation marks are omitted and the text is set off by indenting the left margin as demonstrated in the following example.


At the conclusion of Lord of the Flies, Ralph, realizing the horror of his actions, is overcome by

great shuddering spasms of grief that seemed to

wrench his whole body. His voice rose under the black

smoke before the burning wreckage of the island; and

infected by that emotion, the other little boys began to

shake and sob too. (186)

 *Note that for block style quotations, the punctuation at the end of the cited passage is placed before the in-text reference.

For more information see (MLA 77)
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